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Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Phases of Object Orientation, Tutorial, C#,

Previous Article Characteristics of the Object-Oriented Approach

We already discussed the Object-Oriented Methodology, Objects, Classes,
Characteristics of Object-Oriented Approach in C#. Today we discuss the phases
of Object Orientation. As we all know that before the actual development of any
product, important steps such as analysis and design need to be performed. So
the following phases are involved in the object-oriented methodology :-

  • The Analysis Phase
  • The Design Phase
  • The Implementation Phase

Consider an aircraft manufacturing factory where a new jetliner is being
assembled and several competent engineers and workmen are working with
specialized tools. Can you visualize them working on pure intuition, grabbing
the tools and sitting down to work immediately? Or, do you see them working
according to a detailed design on which they have spent hundreds of hours, and
finally constructing the aircraft based on the specified design.

 For the safety of the millions of people who fly everyday, it is recommended to
use a detailed design. After all, it is comforting to know that is constructed.
Similarly designers put pen to paper before attacking the fabric with scissors.
Architects spend hours drawing layouts of buildings on blueprints before the
bricks are laid.

Therefore the construction of software follows the same approach. The software
industry still relies mainly on the informal paper -and-pencil approach in the
upstream development phases.

It is this paper-and-pencil approach that is termed analysis and design. To
analyze and design a system, you need to build a model of the system.
model is simpler that the system that is finally constructed. All the practical
aspects of building a system for the real world cannot reflected in the design.
However, this does not undermine the importance of design.

The Analysis Phase

"The purpose of analysis is to provide a description of a problem. The
description must be complete, consistent, readable and reviewable bye diverse
interested parties and testable against reality."- Mellor

The analysis or the Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) phase considers the system
as a solution to a problem in its environment or domain. Broadly, analysis is
the phase where users and developers of the system get together and arrive at a
common understanding of the system. One of the end products of the analysis
phase is the specification on how a system functions.

In the analysis phase, the developer concentrates on obtaining as much
information as a possible about the problem. The developer has to identify the
critical requirements. Analysis, therefore, involves meeting and interviewing
the concerned persons to understand systems that are currently in operation and
identifying all the causes problems (if any) in the current system.

The Design Phase

In the design phase, the developers of the system document their
understanding of the system. Design generates the blueprint of the system that
is to be implemented.

The first step in creating an Object-Oriented Design (OOD) is the
identification of classes and their inter-relationships.

Work in the design phase of software development is comparable to the work of
an architect. The architect will need to create a blueprint or a model of the
building before the construction of the building starts.

The Implementation Phase

The design phase is followed by OOP, which is the implementation phase. OOP
provides specifications for writing programs in a programming language. One of
the most popular languages used to write object-oriented programs in C#.

During the implementation phase, programming is done as per the requirements
gathered during the analysis and design phases.

Many of the modern applications are built by using OOP. Developing complex,
large-scale business systems can be simplified by using OOP techniques. Some of
the applications that can be built by using OOP techniques are Computer Aided
Design (CAD), Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Object-Oriented Databases.

Next Article :- Introduction To C#

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